Waste management includes numerous activities including collection, separation, recycling and various ways of waste disposal such as landfilling, composting, incineration and to some extent conversion to fuel and chemicals. It is noteworthy that a significant portion of greenhouse gas emissions in the world is related to the landfilling sites and incinerators in the waste management sector.

Waste-to-Value (WtV) technologies are vital in the context of decarbonisation of waste management sector via reduction of the net Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. There are following five WtV technologies which were demonstrated:

  • Waste-to-Energy (WtE): Power and/or steam generation from pre-treated waste
  • Waste-to-Hydrogen (WtH): Production of hydrogen from pre-treated waste
  • Waste-to-Methanol (WtM): Production of methanol from pre-treated waste
  • Waste-to-Fuel (WtF): Production of fuel from pre-treated waste
  • Waste-to-Acetic Acid (WtAA): Production of acetic acid from pre-treated waste

In order to reduce the net CO2 emissions to the atmosphere, the CO2 can be captured via post-combustion carbon capture by MEA, hot potassium carbonate and Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs). When CO2 is captured within one of the WtV technologies after compression and drying it is transported to be:

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  • utilised for artificial fertilisation of crops in greenhouse horticulture
  • injected into deep geological formations (including depleted oil and gas reservoirs or saline formations) which traps the CO2 for permanent storage
  • utilised for feedstock to an urea plant
  • utilised to treat and stabilise thermal residues (bottom ashes, boiler ashes, fly ashes, flue gas treatment air pollution control residues, drosses from slags, mineral by-product), and in turn valorise them into manufactured limestone (calcium carbonate) aggregate